Computer Organization

It refers to the operational units and their interconnections that realize the architectural specifications. 

It describes the function of and design of the various units of digital computer that store and process information. 

Computer hardware: 

Consists of electronic circuits, displays, magnetic and optical storage media, electromechanical equipment and communication facilities. 

Computer Architecture: It is concerned with the structure and behaviour of the computer. It includes the information formats, the instruction set and techniques for addressing memory. 

 Functional Units -A computer consists of 5 main parts. Input Memory Arithmetic and logic Output Control Units

Input unit accepts coded information from human operators, from
electromechanical devices such as keyboards, or from other computers
over digital communication lines.
The information received is either stored in the computers memory for
later reference or immediately used by the arithmetic and logic circuitry to
perform the desired operations.
The processing steps are determined by a program stored in the memory.
Finally the results are sent back to the outside world through the output
-All of these actions are coordinated by the control unit.
-The list of instructions that performs a task is called a program.
-Usually the program is stored in the memory.
-The processor then fetches the instruction that make up the program from
-the memory one after another and performs the desire operations.

1.1 Input Unit:
 Computers accept coded information through input units, which read the
 Whenever a key is pressed, the corresponding letter or digit is
automatically translated into its corresponding binary code and transmitted
over a cable to either the memory or the processor.

Some input devices are
 Joysticks
 Trackballs
 Mouses
 Microphones (Capture audio input and it is sampled & it is
converted into digital codes for storage and processing).

1.2.Memory Unit:
It stores the programs and data.
There are 2 types of storage classes
 Primary
 Secondary

Primary Storage:
It is a fast memory that operates at electronic speeds.
Programs must be stored in the memory while they are
being executed.
The memory contains large no of semiconductor storage
Each cell carries 1 bit of information.
The Cells are processed in a group of fixed size called
To provide easy access to any word in a memory,a distinct
address is associated with each word location.
Addresses are numbers that identify successive locations.
The number of bits in each word is called the word length.
The word length ranges from 16 to 64 bits.

There are 3 types of memory.They are
 RAM(Random Access Memory)
 Cache memory
 Main Memory

Memory in which any location can be reached in short and fixed amount of time
after specifying its address is called RAM.

Time required to access 1 word is called Memory Access Time.
Cache Memory:
The small,fast,RAM units are called Cache. They are tightly coupled with 
processor to achieve high performance.

C VS C++

C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell labs in 1979, as an extension to the C language.

The major difference between C and C++ is that C is a procedural programming language; which means that it is derived from sequential step by step structured programming. Some of it's applications includes scheduling running of other programs, designing games, graphics etc.

On the other hand C++ is a combination of procedural programming as well as object oriented programming. Objects consists of Data in form of it's characteristics and are coded in the form of methods. In object oriented programming computer programs are designed using the concept of objects that interact with the real world.

C++ For Complete Beginners With Certification

Some other differences includes:

Since C is a procedural programming, it is a function driven language.

C++ is an object driven language.

In C, functions cannot be defined inside structures

In C++, functions can be used inside a structure.

C uses functions for input/output. For example scanf and printf.

C++ uses objects for input output. For example cin and cout.

C does not provide direct support for error handling (also called exception handling)

C++ provides support for exception handling. Used for errors that make the code incorrect.

C does not support reference variables.

C++ supports reference variables.

C++ Syntax


The following code is written in C++

We shall look at each element of the following code in detail to understand the syntax of C++


#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main() 
    cout <<"Hello World.";
    return 0;


#include <iostream>: This is a header file library. <iostream> stands for standard input-output stream. It allows us to include objects such as cin and cout, cerr etc.


using namespace std: Means that names for objects and variables can be used from the standard library. It is also used as additional information to differentiate similar functions. 


int main(): The function main is called just as in C. Any code inside its curly brackets {} will be executed.


cout: is an object used to print a particular text after << in quotes. In our example it will output "Hello World". (for personal reference we can say it is similar to printf in c)


return 0: Terminates the function main



1) Every C++ statement ends with a semicolon ';'

2) Compiler ignores white spaces. Multiple line spaces are used to make the code more readable.


Omitting Name spaces:

C++ programs run without the standard namespace library. This can be done by writing std keyword followed by :: operator inside int main()


#include <iostream> 

int main() 

std::cout <<"Hello World"; 

return 0; 


Output(Print Text)


Using the cout object

As discussed earlier the cout object, together with the << operator, is used to output values/print text.


You can add as many cout objects as you want. However, note that it does not insert a new line at the end of the of each object all of them will be printed in a single line.




#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main() {
  cout << "Demo Code.";
  cout << "I am learning C++.";
  cout << "Print text.";

    return 0;


Demo Code.I am learning C++.Print text.



New Lines


In order to insert a new line after each object declaration \n is used. Or another way to do so is using end1 manipulator

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main() {
  cout << "Demo Code.\n";
  cout << "I am learning C++" <<end1;
  cout << "print text";

  return 0;



Demo Code.
I am learning C++
print text

Note: \n is the preferred way to break lines.

User Input


As we have already discussed earlier cin is used to get user input. This is paired along with the extraction operator (>>)


The following example reads a value from the user and prints it on the screen.



#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main()
  int num;
  cout << "Type a number: "; // displayed on the screen
  cin >> num; //value taken from User
  cout << "Your number is: " << x; // number displayed on the screen

  return 0;

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    What is Artificial Intelligence?
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of computer sciences that emphasizes the development of intelligence machines, thinking and working like humans. For example, speech recognition, problem-solving, learning and planning.



    AI is ubiquitous today, used to recommend what you should buy next online, to understand what you say to virtual assistants such as Amazon's Alexa and Apple's Siri, to recognise who and what is in a photo, to spot spam, or detect credit card fraud.
    At a very high level artificial intelligence can be split into two broad types
    1.Narrow Artificial Intelligence
    2.General Artificial Intelligence
    What Can Narrow AI do?
    Narrow AI is AI that is programmed to perform a single task — whether it's checking the weather, being able to play chess, or analyzing raw data to write journalistic reports. ANI systems can attend to a task in real-time, but they pull information from a specific data-set.
    There are many examples of narrow AI around us every day, represented by devices like Alexa, Google Assistant, Siri, and Cortana. They include:
    • Self-driving cars
    • Facial recognition tools that tag you in pictures
    • Customer service bots that redirect inquiries on a webpage
    • Google’s page-ranking technology that determines which websites appear at the top of the search engine
    • Recommendation systems showing items that could be useful additions to your shopping cart based on browsing history
    • Spam filters that keep your inbox clean through automated sorting
    Here are some of the barriers to ANI:
    • ANI needs a large amount of high-quality data to yield accurate results, and not all environments meet these data requirements.
    • The learning curve to institutionalize AI properly can be steep. Companies have to set up and train their staff on new processes and technologies.
    • If a task changes, the effectiveness of an ANI system decreases, since it is programmed for a specific purpose.
    • Sometimes, replacing humans with rules-based machines leads to greater frustration and lowers customer satisfaction—for example, in the hospitality industry, where guests value personalized service and human interaction. 


    Artificial general intelligence is very different, and is the type of adaptable intellect found in humans, a flexible form of intelligence capable of learning how to carry out vastly different tasks, anything from haircutting to building spreadsheets, or to reason about a wide variety of topics based on its accumulated experience. This is the sort of AI more commonly seen in movies, the likes of HAL in 2001 or Skynet in The Terminator, but which doesn't exist today and AI experts are fiercely divided over how soon it will become a reality.
    Real Examples:
    Is Siri narrow AI?
    Siri is a narrow artificial intelligence algorithm that brings the functions of machine learning to the mobile platform of an iPhone. While Siri is helpful at completing various specific tasks, it is by no means a strong AI, and often has challenges with tasks outside its range of abilities.

    Why is artificial intelligence important?

    AI automates repetitive learning and discovery through data.
    Instead of automating manual tasks, AI performs frequent, high-volume, computerized tasks reliably and without fatigue. For this type of automation, human inquiry is still essential to set up the system and ask the right questions.

    AI adds intelligence to existing products. In most cases, AI will not be sold as an individual application. Rather, products you already use will be improved with AI capabilities, much like Siri was added as a feature to a new generation of Apple products.

    I adapts through progressive learning algorithms to let the data do the programming. AI finds structure and regularities in data so that the algorithm acquires a skill: The algorithm becomes a classifier or a predictor. So, just as the algorithm can teach itself how to play chess, it can teach itself what product to recommend next online. And the models adapt when given new data. Back propagation is an AI technique that allows the model to adjust, through training and added data, when the first answer is not quite right.

    AI analyzes more and deeper data using neural networks that have many hidden layers. Building a fraud detection system with five hidden layers was almost impossible a few years ago. All that has changed with incredible computer power and big data. You need lots of data to train deep learning models because they learn directly from the data. The more data you can feed them, the more accurate they become.

    AI achieves incredible accuracy through deep neural networks – which was previously impossible. For example, your interactions with Alexa, Google Search and Google Photos are all based on deep learning – and they keep getting more accurate the more we use them. In the medical field, AI techniques from deep learning, image classification and object recognition can now be used to find cancer on MRIs with the same accuracy as highly trained radiologists.

    AI gets the most out of data. When algorithms are self-learning, the data itself can become intellectual property. The answers are in the data; you just have to apply AI to get them out. Since the role of the data is now more important than ever before, it can create a competitive advantage. If you have the best data in a competitive industry, even if everyone is applying similar techniques, the best data will win.

    How Artificial Intelligence Works

    AI works by combining large amounts of data with fast, iterative processing and intelligent algorithms, allowing the software to learn automatically from patterns or features in the data. AI is a broad field of study that includes many theories, methods and technologies, as well as the following major subfields: 

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    This course covers the introductory concepts of Artificial Intelligence, inherent challenges in developing an Intelligent System, key paradigms of AI, core techniques and technologies.

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